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Prevalence of TMJD and Its Signs and Symptoms

The prevalence of temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJD) is between 5% and 12%. Unusual for chronic pain conditions, the prevalence rates of TMJ disorders are higher among younger persons. TMJ disorders are at least twice as prevalent in women as men, and women using either supplemental estrogen or oral contraceptives are more likely to seek treatment for these conditions.

Table 1: Prevalence of TMJD and its Signs and Symptoms

The measurement of facial pain and TMJD is complicated. There is no standard definition for TMJD; it is measured by asking about various types and durations of muscle, joint, and facial pain, difficulty with chewing, joint sounds, etc. Table 1 lists a number of recent studies along with the method of measuring TMJD and the prevalence of various TMJD symptoms.  

Table 1: Prevalence of TMJD and its signs and symptoms


Source

Pub. Year

Subpopulation

Measure

Results

Comments

Johansson et al1

2002

Total populations of two counties in Sweden


Pain from TMJ
Joint sounds
Difficulty opening jaw
Bruxism
Sensitive teeth
Burning mouth
Chewing difficulty

Males / Females
6.7% / 12.4%
12.0% / 16.5%
8.2% / 11.2%
15.5% / 20.2%
30.0% / 38.9%
4.1% / 5.3%
27.2% / 24.8%

Cross-sectional study (mail questionnaire, response rate 71%)

(n=8,888)

McFarlane TV2

2002

Patients in a general medical practice, England

One month period prevalence of oro-facial pain
Males
Females
All, 18-25
All, 26-35
All, 36-45
All, 46-55
All, 56-65
Overall




20.8%
29.8%
30.0%
27.6%
26.5%
25.1%
21.7%
25.8%


Cross-sectional study
(n=2504)

Pow EH et al3

2001

Adult Chinese residents of Hong Kong


Jaw pain
Difficulty opening
Clicking
Bruxism
Poorly rested
Severe Pain

Males / Females
33.4% / 32.5%
7.5% / 8.9%
30.2% / 29.7%
25.1% / 24.0%
19.1% / 18.5%
9.3% / 5.8%

Cross-sectional study (telephone survey, response rate 56%)
(n=1,526)


Spanish National Oral Health Survey4


2000


Age 35-44


Age 65-74

Specific TMJD Symptoms:
Jaw clicks
Pain
Limited mobility
Jaw clicks
Pain
Limited mobility



17.6%
1.8%
1.8%
15.5%
2.5%
2.9%




Retrospective population survey
(n=2380)


Goulet et al5


1995

French-speakers age 18+, Province of Quebec

"Jaw pain in your jaw muscles or jaw joints, often or very often."
18-34
35-54
>55
All Ages



Males / Females
3.5% / 8.7%
6.8% / 10.4%
3.3% / 9.7%
5% / 9%




Retrospective population survey
(n=897)


National Health Interview Survey
(Lipton et al)6


1993


US civilians, age 18+

"During the past 6 months, pain in the jaw joint or in front of the ear"….more than once.
Males
Females
All, 18-34
All, 35-54
All, 55-74
All, 75+






3.5%
6.9%
6.5%
5.0%
4.0%
3.9%





Retrospective population survey
(n=42,370)


Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI)7


2007


Men and women ages 45-79 with a history of knee pain.

"Jaw joint or in front of ear, pain or aching, past 30 days"
Jaw joint or in front of ear, how many days had pain or aching, past 30 days"

Males / Females

3.8% / 10.9%


8.5 / 9.1%


Longitudinal, prospective observational study
(n=4579)


References

1 Johansson A, et al: Gender difference in symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders in a population of 50-year-old subjects. J OROFAC PAIN 2003; 17:29-35.

2 Macfarlane TV, Blinkhorn AS, Davies RM, Kincey J, Worthington HV. Oro-facial pain in the community: prevalence and associated impact. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002; 30: 52–60

3 Pow EH et al : Prevalence of symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorders in Hong Kong Chinese. J Orofac Pain 2002; 15(3):228-34.

4 Llodra-Calvo JC et al. Encuesta en Salud Oral En Espana. RCOE 2002, 7:19-63

5 Goulet et al: Jaw pain prevalence among French-speaking Canadians in Quebec and related symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. J Dent Res; 1995. 74(11):1738-44.

6 Ibid reference 1.

7 Unpublished data derived by author from Osteoarthritis Initiative data files available from http://www.oai.ucsf.edu/datarelease/about.asp.

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This page last updated: March 07, 2014