Skip to Main Content
Text size: SmallMediumLargeExtra-Large

Chapter 4 Resources

Links Between Oral Health and HP 2010 Leading Health Indicators

Overweight and Obesity

  • Dietary choices, such as frequent consumption of foods that are high in refined sugars, can increase the risk for dental caries. Many of these are eaten as snacks or sweetened beverages.
  • General malnourishment impairs normal growth, development and maintenance of the body’s tissues and organs and impairs immune responses and wound healing. Reduced resistance of oral tissues to disease can lead to increased colonization by oral pathogens and more sustained and severe oral infections.
  • Overweight and obesity raise the risk of illness from Type 2 diabetes, which increases the occurrence and progression of periodontal disease, and sometimes dental caries.

Tobacco Use

  • Tobacco use, especially when combined with alcohol use, is the major risk factor for oral and pharyngeal cancers, accounting for 75 to 90% of these cancers in the U.S. (SEER data).
  • Smoking increases the risk for periodontal disease and alveolar bone loss, and reduces the rate of wound healing.
  • Maternal smoking has been shown to be associated with increased risk for children born with oral clefts.
  • Gingival recession is seen in people who use spit tobacco; the prevalence of these and other lesions increases with increasing duration and frequency of spit tobacco use. The sugar content of spit tobacco also creates increased risk for root caries.

Injury and Violence

  • Wearing protective mouthguards and headgear during sports can effectively prevent severe injuries to the face and mouth.
  • In 1997 and 1998, there were 2.9 million visits to emergency departments from all age groups related to tooth or mouth injuries. Twenty-five percent of these were in children under the age of four. (NCHS 1997)
  • Twenty-five percent of all persons age 6 to 50 have had an injury that resulted in damage to one or more anterior teeth. (Kaste et al, 1996)
  • The leading causes of head and face injuries include falls, assaults, sports injuries and motor vehicle collisions.

Responsible Sexual Behavior

  • Some STDs are transmitted via personal contact or indirect contact with saliva and blood, and some STDs have associated oral lesions that can be detected on oral examination. Gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, mononucleosis, HPV and sometimes HIV can be spread via oral sexual contact.

Substance Abuse

  • Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to birth defects such as fetal alcohol syndrome, which results in significant craniofacial defects and mental retardation.

Access to Health Care

  • Approximately 108 million (45%) adult Americans have no form of dental insurance. (NHIS 1995)
  • Dental coverage for adults is optional in Medicaid; in about 18 states no services or only emergency services are available for adult dental care. (OIG 1996; GAO 2000)
  • Thirty-six percent of U.S. children (23 million) had no dental coverage in 1995. (NHIS)
  • Only about 20% of Medicaid-eligible children received any preventive dental services. (HCFA)
  • Less than 5% of the dollars spent on dental care is paid by public dollars. About 48% is paid out-of-pocket by individuals, and about 47% by private insurance.

Most statements have been taken or adapted from Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General.

Important to Explore (x) Priority Potential Strategies to Ensure Resources for Planning and/or Implementation
    Request legislators to appropriate additional funds to implement priority activities based upon state-plan objectives.
    Private and public partners create a non-profit organization to raise and distribute funds for Healthy People initiatives.
    Ask public agencies to voluntarily adopt policies to focus their current human and financial resources on priorities or certain objectives.
    Ask private groups to voluntarily redirect current program resources to address health objectives.
    Encourage legislators to evaluate budgets against the plan's priorities.
    Use policy and regulation to focus private sector and public sector efforts on priorities in the plan.
    Ask private foundations to consider state public health priorities when developing grant making programs and awarding funds.
    Request private organizations to provide technical assistance, leadership, administrative support, and donated services to planning efforts, programs, and policy initiatives.
    Require local health departments or community agencies to address health objectives as a condition of using certain public funds. (Recipients choose which objectives to address.)
    Earmark state funding for particular Healthy People activities, objectives, or strategies in the plan, in order to ensure certain priorities are addressed.
    Request local and state health agencies contribute in-kind resources such as personnel to planning efforts.
    Set aside state funding and technical assistance resources to help local jurisdictions with planning efforts.
    Charge dues to organizational members of the state Healthy People coalition.
    Apply for private or public grants to support Healthy People efforts.
Source: Healthy People 2010 Toolkit
A Plan for Securing Resources
Resources Needed Potential Source Strategy Goal Contact Information Timeline Who Responsible Outcome
Example of a Plan for Securing Resources
Resources Needed Potential Source Strategy Goal Contact Information Timeline Who Responsible Outcome
Meeting facilities Community Center Meet with Director Waive facility charge for monthly meetings Donald Acre850-756-8230 7/01 Jim S  
Announce meetings and feature stories Local Newspaper Meet with editors Free mtg announcement and monthly feature stories Gary Slade850-989-0243 8/01 Tracy T  
Instruments, supplies, students for screenings Dental School Meet with Community Dentistry Dept Chair Free supplies and student time with supervisors for 5 screenings Judy Siegal850-222-4586 10/01 Roberta B  
Funding for coalition Cecil Foundation Grant proposal Funds for coalition coordinator and meeting facilitator Toby Grant875-798-7621 6/01 draft for coalition review7/01 submit to foundation Jody M and Terry H  
Computer equipment Computer Company Letter Free or reduced prices on computer and printer Marianne Hunt156 Pace StreetSan Jose, CA 86210 7/01 Naomi J  
Beverages Joe’s Coffee   Beverages for coalition meeting Joe Deland850-224-6906 9/01 Ted T (friend)  
Epid TA and data State Health Department Epidemiology Section Develop letter of need; meet with Division Director Data reports and 20 hrs of TA from Division staff Barbara Hodges856-224-1436 10/01 Brad S  
List of businesses Chamber of Commerce Phone call Some type of support from at least 50% of businesses 850-889-5862 9/01 Carol M  

Grantwriting Tips

  • Carefully read the RFP several times and highlight what the funder wants in a proposal
  • Make sure your agency fits the eligibility requirements; do not waste your time or theirs on inappropriate requests
  • Determine if the request and funding amounts meet your needs - are they a good fit?
  • Follow the guidance, using the same major categories as in the RFP
  • Write the proposal in a clear, direct, honest, logical, and compelling style
  • Avoid jargon and define all technical terms
  • Ensure that each section builds on previous sections and make a smooth transition
  • Make sure your information, especially data, is internally consistent
  • Adhere to overall and subsection page limitations; more is not better
  • In the agency description, assume the funder knows nothing about your program or a particular issue; concisely describe your structure, programs and track record in meeting community/constituency needs, as well as the reasons for why you propose to address a particular issue
  • Make objectives specific, measurable, included within a timeframe, and realistic
  • Do not propose more than you can deliver
  • Do not overstate your case or the need for the project
  • Use local or state data whenever possible
  • Put a face to any facts - personalize the issue and use examples
  • Make evaluation section strong and focus on outcomes
  • Include a clear timeline by month or quarter
  • Create a budget that is clear, realistic (not padded); follow the RFP suggested format and categories, and include specific in-kind and other support
  • Make sure the budget reflects the needs you described in the proposal
  • Make sure that letters of support are not a template that everyone uses; they should be customized and say exactly how the organization intends to support your project, not just that "they will support it." Also, these letters should come from the director, president or other head of the organization.
  • Include short (1-2 page) resumes rather than long CVs
  • Be judicious about materials you include in an appendix
  • Have a number of people review the final draft; the primary writer often is too close to it to notice inconsistencies, gaps, etc.

Grantwriting Glossary

Most of these terms and definitions are taken from The Foundation Center’s Glossary at

Annual report: A voluntary report issued by a foundation or corporation that provides financial data and descriptions of its grantmaking activities. Annual reports vary in format from simple typewritten documents listing the year's grants to detailed publications that provide substantial information about the grantmaker's grantmaking programs. The term is also used to describe the report required of a grantee at the end of each year of a multi-year grant awarded by any type of grantmaker.

Capital support: Funds provided for endowment purposes, buildings, construction, or equipment.

Challenge grant: A grant that is paid only if the donee organization is able to raise additional funds from other sources. Challenge grants are often used to stimulate giving from other donors.

Cooperative venture: A joint effort between or among two or more grantmakers. Cooperative venture partners may share in funding responsibilities or contribute information and technical resources.

Encumbered funds: Monies that have been reserved for a specific purpose via a contract, purchase order, or other financial mechanism, to preclude their being spent in another manner.

Endowment: Funds intended to be invested in perpetuity to provide income for continued support of a not-for-profit organization.

Federated giving program: A joint fundraising effort usually administered by a nonprofit "umbrella" organization that in turn distributes the contributed funds to several nonprofit agencies. United Way and community chests or funds, the United Jewish Appeal and other religious appeals, the United Negro College Fund, and joint arts councils are examples of federated giving programs.

501(c)(3): The section of the tax code that defines nonprofit, charitable (as broadly defined), tax-exempt organizations; 501(c)(3) organizations are further defined as public charities, private operating foundations, and private non-operating foundations.

Form 990-PF: The public record information return that all private foundations are required by law to submit annually to the Internal Revenue Service.

General/operating support: A grant made to further the general purpose or work of an organization, rather than for a specific purpose or project; also called an unrestricted grant.

Grassroots fundraising: Efforts to raise money from individuals or groups from the local community on a broad basis. Usually an organization's own constituents -- people who live in the neighborhood served or clients of the agency's services -- are the sources of these funds. Grassroots fundraising activities include membership drives, raffles, auctions, benefits, and a range of other activities.

Guidelines or guidance: Procedures set forth by a funder that grantseekers should follow when approaching a grantmaker.

PA: An acronym for Program Announcement. It announces increased priority and/or emphasizes particular funding mechanisms for a specific area of science; applications accepted on standard receipt dates on an on-going basis.

Query letter: A brief letter outlining an organization's activities and its request for funding that is sent to a potential grantmaker in order to determine whether it would be appropriate to submit a full grant proposal. Many grantmakers prefer to be contacted in this way before receiving a full proposal.

RFA: An acronym for Request for Applications. It identifies a more narrowly defined area for which one or more NIH institutes have set aside funds for awarding grants; one receipt date, specified in RFA.

RFP: An acronym for Request for Proposal. When the government issues a contract or grant program, it sends out RFPs to agencies that might be qualified to participate. The RFP lists project specifications and application procedures. While a few foundations occasionally use RFPs in specific fields, most prefer to consider proposals that are initiated by applicants.

Seed money: A grant or contribution used to start a new project or organization. Seed grants may cover salaries and other operating expenses of a new project.

Technical assistance: Operational or management assistance given to organizations or potential grantees. It can include fundraising assistance, budgeting and financial planning, program planning, legal advice, marketing, and other aids to management. Assistance may be offered directly by the staff of a foundation, corporation, or government agency, or it may be provided in the form of a grant to pay for the services of an outside consultant.

A diagram showing Marquette County Health Department Dental Program’s example of collaborative partnerships. The diagram shows a central circle entitled Marquette County Health Department Dental Program with several other orbs containing different partners pointing back at it. Some of the partners are business, community groups and coalitions, foundations, and other organizations. There is also a Dental Advisory Board orb that is a go between for several of the partners.Full Size ]

References: Identifying and Leveraging Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Investing in Tobacco Control: State Highlights. 2001. Atlanta GA: USDHHS, CDC, NCCDPHP, Office on Smoking and Health. 2001.

Community Toolbox. Community Work Station. Grant Proposal Outline Narrative.

Geever, JC. The Foundation’s Guide to Proposal Writing, 3rd edition. New York, NY: The Foundation Center, 2001.

Health Resources and Services Administration. Opportunities to Use Medicaid in Support of Oral Health Services. Rockville MD: HRSA. 2000. (

Hopkins BR. A Legal Guide to Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization .NY: John Wiley & Sons. 2001.

Mancuso, Anthony. How to Form a Nonprofit Corporation. 4th ed. Berkeley: Nolo Press. 1997.

Meadows M. Looking for money: Common mistakes people make in the search for funding. Closing the Gap. April 1998. (

Miner LE, Miner JT, Griffith J. Proposal Planning and Writing. 2nd edition. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1998.

Public Health Foundation. Healthy People 2010 Toolkit. Chapter2. Washington DC: Public Health Foundation. 1999. (

The Foundation Center. Orientation for Nonprofits. (

The Foundation Center. Proposal Writing Short Course. Virtual Classroom Learning Lab. (

Winning Strategies for Developing Grant Proposals. Washington, DC: Government Information Services, 1999.

NOTE: PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader.

Share This Page

GooglePlusExternal link – please review our disclaimer

LinkedInExternal link – please review our disclaimer


This page last updated: July 30, 2014